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(Calon) Pesawat Tempur Baru TNI-AU

Februari 15, 2010

Setelah penantian lama dan melalui proses yang cukup alot, pemerintah RI menyetujui usulan TNI-AU untuk membeli satu skadron EMB-314 Super Tucano dari Brasil. Pesawat dari negeri Samba tersebut berhasil mengalahkan rival-rivalnya terkuatnya dari RRC (K-8) dan Korea Selatan (KO-1). Memang banyak parameter pengujian dan evaluasi untuk menguji ketiga pesawat ini dari spesifikasi teknis sampai dengan harga. Dari informasi yang didapatkan dari alutsista.blogspot.com, Tucano unggul karena harga pesawat yang reasonable dan biaya perawatan yang murah.

Pesawat berawak dua ini didatangkan untuk menggantikan pesawat OV-10 yang sudah dikandangkan karena serangkaian kecelakaaan. OV-10, yang memiliki nama Bronco, didatangkan pada tahun 1976 dan sudah berpindah-pindah penugasan: dari Skadron 1 dan terakhir masuk dalam Skadron 21. Bronco juga berawak dua dan berfungsi sebagai pesawat anti-gerilya (COIN/Counter-Insurgency). Perbedaan yang paling mendasar adalah OV-10 memiliki dua buah mesin turboprop sedangkan EMB-314 satu. Kalau soal peralatan navigasi, Super Tucano sudah menganut “glass cockpit” yang serba digital.

Pesawat yang akan ditempatkan di Tarakan, Kalimantan Timur ini sudah dipakai banyak angkatan udara yang sebagian besar berada di Amerika Selatan, a.l. Dominika, Chili, Venezuela dan Ekuador. Bentuk pesawat yang streamline tapi “gahar” memiliki under wing pylons yang mampu membawa persenjataan yang cukup untuk membuat tentara musuh di darat kocar-kacir. Hal ini, menurut pengamatan penulis, salah satu faktor penilaian lebih dari Tucano yang sudah “proven”.

Setelah OV-10, ada lagi pesawat yang harus diganti yaitu pesawat latih H.S. Hawk Mk 53 yang ditempatkan dalam Skadron 15, Madiun. Pesawat latih yang banyak dipakai banyak negara ini merupakan pesawat yang handal. Namun, karena airframe yang sudah uzur, TNI-AU mempertimbangkan untuk menggantinya di tahun 2011. Kami, sebagai pemerhati pertahanan dan keamanan, berpendapat bahwa penggantian ini sudah mendesak karena pilot-pilot tempur calon penunggang F-16, F-5E/F, Su-27/30, sangat tergantung dengan pesawat latih.

Setelah mendatangkan keluarga Sukhoi yang notabene pesawat tempur generasi ke-4, tidak bisa tidak TNI-AU harus memliki pesawat latih yang memiliki kriteria LIFT (lead-in fighter trainer). Hawk Mk 53, yang berteknologi tahun 60-70an sudah tentu tidak dapat lagi memenuhi kemajuan teknologi penerbangan. Calon-calon penggantinya sudah menjadi pertimbangan TNI-AU: L-159B (Ceko), Yak-130 (Rusia), T-50 (Korsel) dan FTC-2000/JL-9 (RRC). Pesawat mana yang akan dipilih? Jawabannya ada di TNI-AU yang sedang menggodoknya.

Sangat seru mengikuti proses modernisasi alat utama sistem senjata (alutsista) TNI kita. Setelah alutsista TNI yang sudah tidak berkutik karena embargo dan keterbasan anggaran, negara kita berusaha mendatangkan alutsista baru setelah desakan rakyat. Embargo persenjataan yang diterapkan oleh Amerika Serikat dan sekutunya karena buruknya citra HAM Indonesia di mata mereka, membuat TNI lemah dalam kesiapan. Oleh karena itu, dalam pengadaan pesawat tempur, Indonesia sudah berpaling dari AS dan mencari sumber-sumber penyedia senjata lain seperti Brasil, Ceko, Rusia dan Cina.

RRC, sebagai negara berkekuatan militer yang cukup besar merupakan negara penyuplai peersenjataan yang patut diperhitungkan. Salah satu contohnya adalah pesawat temput F-7P “Skybolt” yang merupakan tiruan dari MiG-21, banyak dipakai oleh angkatan-angkatan udara berkantong tipis seperti Zimbabwe, Bangladesh dan Pakistan. Dari segi teknologi dan harga, produk senjata buatan RRC sudah dapat memenuhi kriteria negara-negara yang membutuhkan kekuatan esensial yang minimal untuk pertahanan keamanan.

Dari pandangan penulis, penting bagi TNI-AU untuk mempertimbangkan senjata buatan RRC. Setelah senjata pertahanan udara QW-3 (rudal jinjing) milik TNI-AU dan Giantbow milik TNI-AD, bukan tidak mungkin FTC-2000/JL-9 “Mountain Eagle” masuk dalam jajaran Skadron 15 TNI-AU. Sebagai negara berkembang yang ingin melepas ketergantungan dengan negara Barat dalam persenjataan, penting bagi kita untuk mengadakan alih teknologi persenjataan dari negara-negara yang sudah piawai membuat senjata. Senang rasanya mendengar negara-negara lain seperti Malaysia yang tertarik pada panser Anoa buatan PT. Pindad atau Uni Emirat Arab yang sudah membeli CN-235 buatan PT. Dirgantara Indonesia (PT. DI). Tidak sabar rasanya menunggu bahwa nantinya PT. DI dapat memproduksi Su-27/30 untuk keperluan dalam negeri dan ekspor.

Di akhir kata, sebagai pemerhati dirgantara dan angkatan bersenjata, kedatangan Tucano dan tambahan Sukhoi Su-27 SKM (Oktober 2010) merupakan angin segar di tengah terengah-engahnya TNI kita dalam mengejar ketertinggalan teknologi dan keterbatasan anggaran. Namun, kita jangan selalu tergantung dengan negara-negara penghasil persenjataan tapi kita juga harus dapat berdiri di atas kaki sendiri. Momen ini harus dijadikan saat yang tepat untuk belajar alih teknologi persenjataan canggih.

Resolusi 2010

Desember 11, 2009

Hi there! Ini saat pertama saya menulis blog. Belum banyak yang ingin saya utarakan tapi penting rasanya untuk mengutarakan apa yang menjadi rencana di tahun 2010. Di tahun depan yang hanya beberapa minggu lagi, saya ingin menjadi ayah dan suami yang lebih baik dari tahun sebelumnya. Tahun depan, seperti yang Arthur C. Clarke katakan dalam bukunya “2010: Oddyssey 2; the Year We Make Contact”, saya ingin memulai tahun depan untuk mencari “kesempatan-kesempatan” baru. Agak luas memang, tapi saya akan mencoba tantangan baru. Hobby misalnya, saya ingin kembali pegang kamera. Dengan kata lain, saya ingin memulai kembali hobby fotografi yang sudah lama “tidur”. Beberapa kamera sudah menjadi incaran tinggal memantapkan hati dan dompet. Itupun kalo tidak ada urusan keluarga yang lebih mendesak. Hal lain, tentang pendirian yang fokus pada penangan hypospadia. Hypospadia adalah jenis kelainan pada alat vital laki-laki (pada umumnya). Pada kelainan ini, lubang kencing tidak pada tempat yang seharusnya. Operasi harus dilakukan pada umur ideal, 2-4 tahun. Anak kami tercinta, Pasha, telah menjalani operasi setahun yang lalu. Alhamdulillah, sekarang dia sembuh seperti layaknya anak laki-laki lain. Saya hanya seorang ayah yang sangat peduli akan kasus ini dan belum ada yayasan atau komunitas yang fokus pada hypospadia dan bukan berafiliasi ke asosiasi dokter manapun. Saya sangat gembira apabila ada kalangan kedokteran yang mau membantu memberikan saran atau jalan untuk terbentuknya organisasi ini. Insya Allah, niat baik saya untuk membantu sesama, diluruskan jalannya oleh Allah SWT….

Anthropology

Desember 11, 2009

Anthropology in High School: a Diminishing Entity?

By Arif Armansyah*

When I was a high school student, I remember how thrilled I was whenever the anthropology teacher came into the class and started preparing the lesson. I was fond of the lesson, perhaps not to the majority of my classmates though! From my perspectives, the lesson taught me how varied our culture is and how lots of problems which we encountered due to these cultural diversities. Well, the excitement of anthropology took me to England where I pursued advanced education in the same subject there and, it could be stated, that is the reason I wrote this essay.

To begin with, let me first introduce what anthropology is. I know from experience that most people do not have much idea about the subject. Some guess wildly that the subject studies bones or skulls. But the subject that relates to bones and skulls is a field of studies in archeology. There is link between them; in fact, archeology, which studies social artifacts, is the sub-field of anthropology that focuses more to human behavior. Anthropology originated from the Greek word antropos, “human” and, logos, means science. According to Havilland, anthropology is “the study of humankind everywhere, throughout time, seeks to produce useful generalizations about people and their behavior and to arrive at the fullest possible understanding of human diversity.” (Havilland, 1996)

Anthropology itself has been developing rapidly in the West. Historically, the nations of Europe, and later the United States employed the science in order to get more knowledge on the indigenous people so they would be easier to colonize and control. But it must also be admitted that the American anthropologist, Franz Boas, studied every aspect of American Indian tribes, Kwakiutl and Hopi tribes of North America not just for an understanding of how better to control their movement but also to preserve a record of their traditional culture which he taught was fast disappearing. In other part of the world, Seligman was contracted by the British government to perform anthropological research in Sudan (Kuper, 1996). One of our heroes, Teuku Umar was defeated by the Dutch army after their anthropologist, Snouck Hurgronje, conducted an anthropological studies of the Acehnese.

In the 50’s, under the initiative of Prof. Koentjaraningrat, anthropology became part of the faculty of literature, University of Indonesia. During its development, it turned out that anthropological analyses touched social matters more than literature. Therefore, in 1983, it was merged into the faculty of social and political science University of Indonesia. Besides the late Prof. Koentjaraningrat, there are other well known anthropologists, such as the late Prof. Pasurdi Suparlan, James Danandjaja and Amri Marzali, who have contributed a lot to this country’s anthropology development (Indira Permanasari, “50 Tahun Antropologi UI (1):Di Tengah Gaung yang Kian Pudar…”).

However, after for more than 50 years being involved in Indonesia’s development, I have the impression that anthropology appears to have lost its significance. Anthropology is the science that uses comparative studies across culture to gain more understanding about people in their social surroundings. Sometimes, anthropologists are asked by government to contribute their thoughts when making feasibility study. However, their contribution was far from being recognized because their reports or ethnography remain stacked on the desk of bureaucrats and only a few ideas are ever applied in reality. Sadly, in my opinion, our government does not involve anthropologists prior to making any policy decisions in regards to rural areas. This is a pity since many present obstacles to progress, such as the conflict in Papua between the local people and PT. Freeport can be mediated or solved with the help of anthropologists.  Furthermore, in relation to regional autonomy, governors all around Indonesia need to utilize anthropology as a tool to develop their region’s potential in many aspects. I suspect that the regional governments are simply unaware of the potential importance of anthropology for regional development.

One of the problems seems to be the declining importance of anthropology in the educational curriculum. In the 1984 curriculum, in senior high school, anthropology was a subject in the social science program (IPS). However, in both 2004 (KBK) and 2006 (KTSP) curricula, anthropology is no longer part of the social science stream but it is inseparable subject in language program (Bahasa). The reason is unknown but the matter is of great concern to anthropologists. (antropologiairlangga@yahoogroups.com). Does the change means that anthropology is diminishing in significance? Unfortunately, yes. The moved from the social science to the language program which is only run by a few schools is only one indicator. This decline in anthropological studies in Indonesia paradoxically comes at a time when western countries are beginning to realize its significance for high school students. In England, for example a new A level-the senior high school leaving examination-has just been developed in Anthropology because it is considered an excellent subject to introduce students to understanding societies at home and overseas.

Judging from the standard competencies that must be fulfilled by the students stated in the anthropology book published by Esis (2006), students have to be able to analyze and solely to understand local cultures in relation to national integration. Indeed, to understand local cultures is a must as a way to appreciate them. Appreciation of local culture has been declining at an alarming state. One example is the recent tension between Indonesia and Malaysia over several cultural issues may well be stated as one indicator that we need to strengthen our cultural awareness. Batik, angklung and reog are our cultural heritage that must be preserved and protected. It is sad to see that nowadays children are fonder of Iron Man rather than Gatot Kaca or they prefer to perform Michael Jackson’s Moonwalk rather than traditional Balinese dance. From my point of view, shallow cultural analyses have contributed to this phenomenon and anthropology became an irrelevant subject for policy makers. This situation is worsened by the fact of overlapping standard competencies between anthropology and sociology as well as the lack of anthropology-related teaching resources.

Anthropological analyses have now been developing rapidly and anthropology does not only discussing ethnic groups, dialects or local dance. Language, to some extent, is a large part of culture and it cannot be denied that there is strong connection between anthropology and language. Furthermore, there must be strong reason for merging anthropology into language program in high school. However, discussing culture in anthropology covers much wider spectrum of subjects than just language such as ways of life, political and administrative organization, production and consumption, exchange and markets, family life, religious beliefs, laws as well as values. There is much material for interesting class discussion. Cases that can be discussed in a class range from multiculturalism, assimilation of minorities, conflict management to global migration and civil war. To make the class more exciting, the students can be asked to do practical exercises make ethnography, which is a description of the practices they observe around their school. Without ethnography, anthropologists are similar to surgeons without scalpels. Therefore, it would not do any harm if the students are trained to make ethnography at the early stage.

Furthermore, lacks of information about the future of anthropologists have also contributed to diminishing the significance of anthropology in high school. Lack of information leads to the uncertainty of pursuing career as an anthropologist and this situation creates a stigma for anthropologists who are regarded as “unmarketable”. Unlike in the West at present where anthropologists are now being chased by multinational corporations such as Intel, Citibank or Nokia as experts to further develop their products. A social anthropologist with a PhD in Social Anthropology, Gillian Tett, who had done work in a rural community of Turkistan, was recently appointed a Deputy Editor of the international newspaper, the Financial Times. Using her anthropological skills she had observed the weakness in business organization in the banking sector and had predicted the coming crash. Ethnography, the prominent tool of anthropologists, is now being utilized widely to gain plethora information on consumers’ needs. Actually, this kind of activity has also been used in several Indonesian prominent companies such as Sosro. Before developing their famous beverage product Teh Botol, Sosro did intensive research on Indonesians who always bring hot tea in thermos whenever they go picnicking. So, they developed a product to cater to Indonesians who are very fond of tea (Business Week, 2-9 August 2006).

So, the issue of the decline of anthropology as a high school subject has became a concern for Indonesian anthropologists. It is not arrogances that make them press the issue, but concerned awareness that Indonesia needs anthropology. Furthermore, the subject needs to be taught at the early stage. Anthropology is still being taught in high school though as part of language stream. However due to small number of schools that run language program, it appears that anthropology has lost its charm. On the other hand, without anthropology, from my perspectives, students would be difficult to make deep analyses about people and their culture. In addition, culture is not only about traditional dance, dialects and tribes per se. Contemporary issues in anthropology, nowadays, discusses much wider social aspects such as ideas and values.  Therefore, it is important that anthropology has to be re-positioned back to its original place, the social science program where it needs to be given a more prominent position.  As for the teachers, they have to be trained and equipped with up to date information in relation to contemporary anthropological issues. Anthropology is not a boring subject if it is taught properly.

*Principal of Junior High Level Sekolah Global Mandiri in Cibubur and an anthropologist